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Document Description
TitleA history of the island of Newfoundland : containing a description of the island, the banks, the fisheries and trade of Newfoundland, and the coast of Labrador
AuthorAnspach, Lewis Amadeus, 1770-1823
PublisherPrinted for the author and sold by T. and J. Allman and J.M. Richardson
Place of PublicationLondon, England
DescriptionA general history of Newfoundland and Labrador from its settlement to the early 19th century.
ContentsPreface -- Chapter 1 -- The Northmen -- Various claims to the first peopling of America -- Newfoundland first discovered by accident by the Northmen, who give it the name of Win-land -- Wild vine - Martha's vineyard - Isle of Bacchus -- Bay of Exploits - Gander-Bay -- Skroellingers or Esquimaux -- Red Indians -- Maritime intercourse interrupted by the increase of the Arctic ice -- Voyage of the two Zenos of Venice -- Estotiland -- Revolution in Win-land in the beginning of the fifteenth century -- Savage life not the natural state of man -- Chapter 2 -- John and Sebastian Cabot -- Discovery of the Brazils the effect of accident -- Columbus applies to Henry VII -- Venice - John Cabot -- Voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot to Newfoundland -- Bonavista - Baccalaos -- This discovery attributed by some writers to Sebastian -- Fabian's account of three natives of Newfoundland brought to England by Cabot -- Further account of Sebastian Cabot -- Remarks of Purchas, Sir William Monson, &c. on this discovery of Newfoundland -- Want of precision in the writers of those times -- Chapter 3 -- Continuation of the History from 1497 to 1548 -- The Newfoundland fishery frequented as early as the year 1500 -- Gaspar de Corte Real, in 1501 -- Conception-Bay - Terra Corterealis, or New Britain - Labrador -- Voyages of Verazani by order of Francis 1 -- Attempt of Robert Thorne, of Bristol, by order of Henry VIII. towards a passage to the Indies by the North Pole, 1527 -- Why France attended at that time to voyages of discovery less than other nations -- James Cartier, of Saint Maloes, in 1534 -- The same, in 1535 -- De Roberval, of Picardy, receives a most extensive grant from Francis I. and makes great preparations for a voyage to North America -- Cartier's third voyage -- Hoare, of London, sails for Newfoundland, in 1536, with a considerable number of gentlemen of fortune -- Their extreme distress in that island - and return to England -- Rapid increase of the British Newfoundland fisheries, and first act of parliament respecting them -- Chapter 4 -- Continuation from 1548 to 1630 -- Why colonies were not sooner sent to America -- Sir Humphrey Gilbert, "the parent of all the British plantations in America, " makes the first attempt towards a settlement there in Newfoundland, for which he obtains a patent from Queen Elizabeth, and sails for that island in 1578 -- New regulations on property in fishing-rooms in 1582 -- Sir Humphrey Gilbert's second voyage in 1583 -- He arrives at Saint John's and takes formal possession of the island -- Inquires into its nature, inhabitants, and productions -- Supposed discovery of mines of iron, silver, &c. -- Conspiracies among his crews -- Loss of the Delight -- Loss of Sir Humphrey in the Squirrel, on his return to England -- Sir Walter Raleigh sails for North America -- Sir Francis Drake sails for Newfoundland -- First attempt in the seal-fishery by Richard Strang, of Apsham, in 1593 -- Rice Jones, of Bristol, in 1594 -- Charles Leigh and Van Herwick, of London, in 1597 -- De la Roche sails with a grant from Henry IV, of France, in 1598 -- Chauvin, in 1600 and 1601. - Canadian trade -- Samuel Champlain takes a part in the quarrels of the Indians in Canada, and supplies them with firearms -- Hackluyt forms an association of men of rank for the purpose of establishing colonies in North America, in 1606 -- Attempt to discover a north-west passage in 1606 -- Quebec founded in 1607, and James-Town in 1608 -- Voyage of John Knight to Labrador and Newfoundland -- Henry Hudson and John Guy, in 1610 -- Whitburn sent to Newfoundland, in 1614, with a commission from the Admiralty to impannel juries, &c. -- State of the English fisheries there in 1614 and 1615 -- Settlements then existing in Saint John's, Torbay, &c. -- Doctor Vaughan and Whitburn at Ferryland, in 1615 -- Avalon founded by Sir George Calvert and Edward Wynne, in 1623 -- Wynne's and Powell's accounts of the state of cultivation in the new province -- Other improvements at Ferryland -- Colony sent from Ireland -- Defeat of a French squadron on that coast by Lord Baltimore, who leaves Newfoundland in 1632, and afterwards found Maryland -- Chapter 5 -- Continuation from 1633 to 1702 -- Charles I. encourages the English settlements and fisheries in North America, and issues a commission for the better government of Newfoundland, in 1633 -- His example is followed by France -- Sir David Kirk carries a colony to Newfoundland in 1654 - The number of settlements there increases rapidly, the principal of which are Saint John's, Ferryland, and Quidy-Vidy - Placentia founded by the French -- Consequences of Colbert's measures respecting the French fisheries at Newfoundland -- Ordinance of Louis XIV -- War with France -- Failure of an attempt against Placentia -- France aims at the possession of all North America -- Attempt of Nesmond, in 1696, on Saint John's -- Capture by Brouillan and Ibberville of the whole island, except Bonavista and Carbonier-Harbour -- Fruitless expedition of Admiral Nevil and Sir John Gibson -- Peace of Rhyswick -- Sir John Norris, Governor in 1697, Sir Stafford Fairborne, in 1700, and Sir John Leake, in 1702 - Distinguished character of the officers appointed to that station from 1675 -- King William's act "to encourage the trade to Newfoundland" -- Fishing Admirals and other important regulations for the better government of the fishery and administration of justice -- Formation of "the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts" -- First missionary in Newfoundland -- Chapter 6 -- Retrospective View of the Newfoundland Fishery, and of the Accounts of that Island by Different Writers of the Seventeenth Century -- Chapter 7 -- Continuation of the History from 1702 to 1713 -- War with France - Hostilities in Newfoundland -- Fruitless expedition of Vice-Admiral Graydon -- Fruitless attempt of the French against Saint John's -- Gallant and successful operations of a small English squadron on the northern coast of Newfoundland -- Resolution of parliament respecting that island in 1707 -- Saint John's taken and destroyed in 1708 -- Fruitless attempt of the French against Carbonier -- Alarm in England respecting Newfoundland -- Fruitless expedition against Quebec and Placentia -- Treaty of Utrecht -- Death of Queen Anne -- Disorders occasioned by the Jesuits in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland -- Disputes respecting boundaries -- Chapter 8 -- Continuation from 1713 to 1763 -- Effects of the act of King William respecting Newfoundland - Insufficiency of the system of judicature established by that act -- Appointment of a Civil Governor; - of a Court of Oyer and Terminer; - of a High Sheriff; - of Justices of the Peace in out-harbours; - and of Floating Surrogates, in 1728 -- Lord Graham - Admiral Byng -- Court of Vice-Admiralty established -- Appointment of a Naval Officer -- France loses her part of Newfoundland, and the island of Cape-Breton -- Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle -- Origin of the war in 1755 --Beginning of hostilities on the coast of Newfoundland -- Sir Charles Hardy - Lord Rodney -- Ancient custom in Saint John's in cases of insolvency -- Captain James Webb -- Captain, afterwards Lord, Graves -- Claim of Spain to the Newfoundland fishery -- War with Spain in 1762 -- Bay-Bulls, Saint John's, Carbonier, Trinity, &c. taken by a French squadron under Admiral de Ternay -- Retaken by Lord Colville and Sir Jeffrey Amherst -- Robert Carter - Charles Garland -- Captain James Cook -- Distress in Saint John's -- Treaty of Paris in 1763 -- Coast of Labrador annexed to the government of Newfoundland -- Tenor of the commissions of the peace issued at that time -- Court of Oyer and Terminer -- Abuses respecting fishing-rooms, the administration of justice, &c. -- Scot and a party of native Indians -- Effects of the Treaty of Paris on the Newfoundland fisheries -- Population of the island in 1763 -- Chapter 9 -- Continuation from 1763 to 1775 -- Alarm in England respecting Newfoundland -- Increase of the fisheries -- Captain Hugh Palliser -- Captain Byron -- Disturbances in Newfoundland - Custom-House -- Sir Roger Curtis (Note) -- Disturbances in the American colonies -- Suspension of supplies from the continent -- Sir Hugh Palliser's act -- Captain Duff - Salmon fisheries -- Chapter 10 -- Continuation from 1775 to 1793 -- American privateers -- Rear-Admiral Montague - Proclamation for the protection of the Newfoundland Indians -- Sudden recall of the French fishermen and mariners from the banks -- War with France - Rear-Admiral Edwards -- Vice-Admiral Campbell - Mr. Aaron Graham -- Effects of that war on the British Newfoundland fisheries -- Treaties of 1783, - with America and with France -- Change in the French boundaries in Newfoundland -- Comparative increase of the British Newfoundland fisheries in 1785 -- Act regulating the intercourse between Newfoundland and the United States of America -- Act of 1786 for the encouragement of the Newfoundland fisheries -- Beneficial changes in the courts of justice - Rear-Admiral Elliot -- Rear-Admiral Mark Milbanke - Court of Common Pleas -- Establishment of the "Supreme Court of Judicature" -- Chief-Justice John Reeves -- Act of the 33d Geo. III. cap. 76 -- Clause respecting cases of insolvency -- Chapter 11 -- Continuation from 1793 to 1818 -- Causes which had hitherto prevented the British Government from obtaining correct information on the state of things in Newfoundland -- Important consequences of the late improvements in the administration of justice -- State of the British Newfoundland fisheries in 1795 -- Sir James Wallace and the French Admiral Richery -- Vice-Admiral Waldegrave -- Premature attempt to establish a college in Saint John's -- Curious trial -- Vice-Admiral Gambier - Mr. Joseph Trounsell -- State of Conception-Bay -- Change there in the civil and ecclesiastical state of things -- Society for Improving the Condition of the Poor, and Sunday-schools in Conception-Bay -- A similar society established in Saint John's -- Other improvements in Conception-Bay -- Treaty of Amieus -- Renewal of hostilities -- A female Indian in Saint John's -- Loss of the Lady Hobart packet, and arrival of her passengers and crew in Conception-Bay -- Printing-office established - Volunteer militia formed in Saint John's -- Post-office established in Saint John's and Conception-Bay -- Act of 1809 - Coast of Labrador re-annexed to the government of Newfoundland -- First attempt to open a communication with the native Indians of Newfoundland -- Scarcity of cattle -- Sir John Thomas Duckworth -- Second attempt respecting the native Indians -- Sale of ships-rooms in Saint John's -- Third attempt respecting the native Indians -- War with America -- Ravages by the small-pox in Saint John's -- Fire in Harbour-Grace -- The History of Newfoundland continued to the year 1818 -- Chapter 12 -- Description of the Banks and Island of Newfoundland and of the Coast of Labrador -- Theory of the Abbé Clavigero concerning the first peopling of America -- Atalantis -- Revolutions produced by volcanoes and earthquakes -- Remarkable earthquakes in Canada in 1663, and at Boston in 1727 -- Traces of volcanoes in Massachusetts -- Extraordinary structure of the island and banks of Newfoundland -- Outer or False Bank - Great Bank - Other banks -- Various theories concerning those banks -- Gulf-Stream - Drift wood, &c. -- Difference in length of the voyages to and fro, between Europe and North America -- Gulf-weed - Fogs on the banks -- Appearance and description of the island of Newfoundland -- Avalon - Trinity-Bay - Baccalao-Island -- Conception-Bay -- Saint John's- Bay-Bulls -- Southern coast - Trepassey-Bay - Saint Mary's Bay -- Placentia Bay - Richard Brothers -- Fortune-Bay -- Penguin, Burgeo, and other islands -- Western coast -- Bay of Islands - Bonne-Bay - Ingornachoix-Bay -- Saint John's Bay and Highlands - Pistolet-Bay - Hare-Bay -- White-Bay - Bay of Exploits - Gander-Bay - New World Island - Twilingate - Fogo -- Bonavista-Bay - Green's Pond Islands - Catalina-Harbour -- Islands of Saint Peter and Miquelons -- Saint Peter's Bank - Anticosti Island -- Coast of Labrador - History - Seals and dogs -- Mecatina and Shecatica-Bay - Saint Augustine's Square -- Straits of Belle-Isle -- Attempts to discover a north-west passage to India - Cabot - Thorne - Frobisher - Davis - Hudson -- Chapter 13 -- Of the Climate of Newfoundland and Coast of Labrador -- Peculiar character of the climate of North America -- Comparison between the climates of Newfoundland and of Canada -- Winter in Newfoundland -- Effects of cold on the extremities of animals -- Aurora Borealis -- Islands and fields of ice - Frozen fogs, or frost smoke -- Mode of opening a passage for vessels through the ice -- Spring - Summer -- Splendid appearance of Conception-Bay during the capelin-scull -- Fall, and approach of winter -- Whether the climate of Newfoundland is capable of improvement -- Chapter 14 -- Of the Natural Productions of the Island of Newfoundland and of the Coast of Labrador -- Attempts towards agricultural improvements -- Mode of planting potatoes -- Kitchen gardens -- Fruits - Berries - Indian tea -- Side-saddle flower, or pitcher-plant -- Cotton-reeds - Flowers -- "A short feast and a long famine" -- Trees - "Newfoundland coffins" -- Animal flowers -- Minerals -- Catalina-stone - Burning mountain -- Labrador-stone -- Animals -- Fur-hunting -- Change in the colour of animals in winter -- Traps and snares -- Newfoundland dog -- Essential differences between the Greenland and the Newfoundland dogs -- Gnats, or mosquitoes -- Poultry - Wild-fowl - Wild geese -- Partridges, &c. -- Various kinds of sea-birds -- Baccalao birds, how far useful in navigation -- Penguins -- Morses, or sea-cows - Whales -- Fatal issue of an attempt in the whale-fishery in Conception-Bay -- Cod-fish -- Trout; - eels; - lobsters; - plaice; &c. -- Capelin - Capelin-seines -- Salmon -- Herrings, their annual migrations -- Lance - Squid, cuttle-fish, or ink-fish - Mackerel -- Jiggers used in fishing -- Extraordinary voraciousness and fecundity of the cod-fish -- Other peculiarities -- Stones in the head of this fish -- Chapter 15 -- Of the Newfoundland Fisheries -- Seals and seal-fishery -- Uses of the seal to Greenlanders and to Europeans -- Of the flesh of seals -- State of the Newfoundland coast at the time of the seal-fishery -- Manner of proceeding in this fishery -- Mode of making seal-oil - Blubber -- Effect of oil on the agitated surface of the sea, from which l'Abbe Raynal foretold wonderful improvements in navigation -- Mode of preparing seal-skins -- Mode of proceeding in the cod-fishery -- Fishing - Curing - Salting -- Drying - Laying-rooms - Hand and broad flakes -- Hardships attending the cod-fishery -- Maggotty; - salt-burnt; - sun-burnt; - slimy; - dunfish -- Mud-fish -- Cod-seines -- Shore-fishery -- Northern-fishery -- Labrador-fishery -- Bank-fishery -- Western-fishery -- Cod-oil -- Chapter 16 -- Of the Character and Manners of the Aborigines and other Inhabitants of the Island of Newfoundland -- How far gradual improvement is a most conspicuous law of the nature of man -- Anecdote related by Doctor Franklin (Note) -- The North American Indians nearly the same in the nineteenth century as when first discovered -- Artful and revengeful; not numerous; indolent -- Of the Newfoundland Indians -- As described by Cabot; - Broughton; - James Cartier; Sir Martin Frobisher; - Guy; - by Clarke, in 1696; - and by Patrick Gordon, in 1722 -- Inhabitants of European extraction -- How far the seed is affected by difference of climate -- By the nature of the country; by diet -- Of fish diet - Of the constant use of tea - Spruce-beer -- Houses - Tilts - Linneys - Kitchens -- Character of the women -- Longevity - Diseases - Customs -- Saluting the bride - Marriages - Christenings -- Funeral ceremonies - Waking the dead -- Festivals of Saint George and Saint Patrick -- Horse-shoes -- Candlemas-day - Ash Wednesday - Dragging the log -- Christmas-log, or Yule festival - Christmas boxes - Mumming -- General character of the inhabitants of Conception-Bay -- Religious Professions -- Courts of justice -- Appendix -- Note 1 -- Northmanna-land -- Note 2 -- Ancient ships and boats -- Note 3 -- Abraham Ortelio's "Orbis Terræ Theatrum." -- Note 4 -- Names of Newfoundland, of West Indies, and of Indians -- Note 5 -- Revolutions in the Arctic ice -- Note 6 -- King Charles's commission for the better government of Newfoundland -- Note 7 -- Ordinance of Louis XIV, concerning the marine and the fisheries -- Note 8 -- Introduction of the patata by Sir Walter Raleigh -- Note 9 -- Of the use of iron among the savages of North America.
SubjectFisheries--Newfoundland and Labrador--History
Indians of North America--Newfoundland and Labrador
Labrador (N.L.)--Description and travel
Newfoundland and Labrador--Description and travel
Newfoundland and Labrador--Economic conditions
Newfoundland and Labrador--History
Physical Description512 p.
About the AuthorLewis Amadeus Anspach (1770-1823) operated as a schoolmaster, missionary and Justice of the Peace in Newfoundland from 1799 to 1812, working primarily in the Conception Bay area.
LocationCanada--Newfoundland and Labrador
Local Call NumberF 1122 A4 1819;
Resource TypeBook
FormatImage/jpeg: Application/pdf
Record NumberCNS-B0294
CollectionCentre for Newfoundland Studies - Digitized Books
RepositoryMemorial University of Newfoundland. Libraries. Centre for Newfoundland Studies
SourcePaper text held in the Centre for Newfoundland Studies
PDF File(81.61MB) --
CONTENTdm file name100977.cpd